Effect of Low Carbohydrate Diet (LCD) for Diabetic Patients with Hypertriglycemia
Arguments have continued for long concerning low carbohydrate diet and calorie restriction (calorie-restricted diet). Authors have reported clinical studies of low carbohydrate diet on ketone bodies, glucose variability and Morbus value so far.
Subjects and methods:
Subjects are 28 patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which were 20/8 (M/F) with 48.3 ± 13.9 years old with serum triglyceride more than 250 mg/dL on blood sampling with overnight fasting. They were admitted for 14 days and the protocol was as follows: 1) calorie-restricted diet on day 1 and 2, which had 60% carbohydrates, 2) low carbohydrate diet on day 3-14 days which is so-called super-low carbohydrate diet formula with 12% carbohydrates.
Mean HbA1c was 8.0 ± 1.7% and mean fasting glucose was 177 ± 52 mg/dL. Median data days 2 to 4 were 208 to 147 mg/dL in average glucose, 146 to 21 in Morbus (M) value and 123 to 94.5 mg/day in urinary Cpeptide. Median data days 2 to 14 were 366 to 159 mg/dL in Triglyceride, 46 to 42 mg/dL in HDL-C and 111 to 120 mg/dL in LDL-C. Remnant-like particle cholesterol on day 2 was 15.9 mg/dL in median. Significant correlations on day 2 were shown between Triglyceride and HDL-C (p<0.05), Triglyceride and LDL-C (p<0.05). Remnant-like particle cholesterol-C showed significant positive correlation with Atherogenic Index (AI) and triglyceride (p<0.01), significant negative correlation with HDL (p<0.05). Significant correlations were shown on day 2 and 14 in Triglyceride and LDL-C/HDL-C Ratio (p<0.01).
Discussion and conclusion:
Decrease of blood glucose indicated short effect of low carbohydrate diet only for 2 days from calorie restriction to low carbohydrate diet. Apparent large decrease of M value would be useful for clinical management and research. Analyses of correlations among RLP-C, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, AI and LDL-C/HDL-C Ratio would become the fundamental data for clinical research and give the hint for research direction in the future.
In current study, we reported the efficacy of LCD for T2DM by glucose and M value, and analyzed the relationship among glucose, lipids such as RLP-C, triglyceride, HDL-C. LDL-C, L/H ratio and AI. These findings would become the fundamental data for clinical research and treatment of T2DM in the future.
Endocrinology and Metabolism:Open Access